Kazakhstan increases research and development internal spending by 23% year-on-year


Research and development (R&D) costs increased by 15.6%, amounting to 134.9 billion tenge in 2021. A year earlier, the volume of R&D spending, on the contrary, showed an annual reduction of 1.1%.

More than half of all R&D spending in 2021 was cumulatively accounted for only by Almaty (44.2 billion tenge)...